Archives for 30 December 2018 | آموزش | LpWANdata IoT Solution Provider
30 December 2018


What is LoRaWAN™? How it works? Technical specifications and applications

What is LoRaWAN™? How it works?
LoRaWAN™: Long Range Wide Area Network, is a protocol developed by the LoRa Alliance.
The peculiarity of this new protocol is the efficiency; because LoRaWAN™ has the minimal power consumption, long range of communication (up to 15km in rural areas) and secure data transmission (with AES-128 encryption).
The range of communication is around 2km in dense urban area, up to 15km in the rural areas and is influenced by the position of the end device and of the gateway, if the gateway is mounted in an high place the cover will be major than if is mounted in a low place.
LoRaWAN™ is part of a bigger category of technologies named LPWAN, that stands for Low Power Wide Area Network, this technology was born for the necessity of sending and receiving messages from sensor that operate on battery, using the smallest amount of energy available to preserve the battery energy.

Technical specifications
LoRaWAN™ supports three different class of devices: Class A, Class B,  Class C.
Class A devices are battery powered, when an uplink is sent to the server the device open two short downlink windows for eventual commands, if the server cannot send a downlink communication in these two short windows, it will have to wait till the next uplink message.
Class B devices are battery powered, in addition to the two short windows of Class A, Class B have an extra downlink windows that is opened at scheduled times. This windows is synchronized with the server using a Beacon from the gateway and allows the server to know when the end device is listening.
Class C devices are electrically powered, the receive windows are nearly continuously open, only during transmission are closed.

LoRaWAN™ Security
LoRaWAN™ uses two types of symmetric session key for the security of the communication, that are unique for each LoRa device. The NwkSkey is used to guarantee the message integrity from the device to the LoRa Network Server. The AppSkey is used for the end-to-end AES-128 encryption from the device to the Application Server.
LoRaWAN™ devices have two ways to join the network. The first is OTAA, Over-the-Air-Activation. The device and the network exchange a 128-bit AppKey. When the device send the join request, the AppKey is used to create a Message Integrity Code (MIC), the server then check the MIC with the AppKey. If the check is valid, the server creates two new 128-bit keys, the App Session key (AppSkey) and the Network Session Key (NwkSkey). These keys are sent back to the device using the AppKey as an encryption key. When the keys are received the device decrypts and installs the two session keys.
The second method for the network join is ABP, Activation by Personalization. In this case the device session keys are inserted by the user, thus is possible to have security issues.

چیست LoRaWAN

برای شناخت LoRaWAN ابتدا باید LoRa را شناخت:

تکنولوژی LoRa :

LoRa (short for long range)

یک نوع تکنیک مدولاسیون طیف گسترده است که بر گرفته شده از chirp spread spectrum (CSS) می باشد.
تکنولژی لرا سه قابلیت مهم را به همراه دارد که باعث شده لقب دی ان ای اینترنت اشیاء را به خود اختصاص دهد:

۱) برد بالا long range
۲) مصرف پایین low power
۳) قیمت پایین

در حال حاضر بیش از ۶۰۰ مورد استفاده صنعتی و کاربردی از این تکنولوژی مورد تایید قرار گرفته است.


Open LoRaWAN یک پروتکل شبکه گسترده (LPWAN) کم قدرت، بر اساس تکنولوژی LoRa است. پروتکل LoRaWAN برای طراحی بیسیم برای اتصال گره های انتهایی شبکه که با باطری کار می کنند به اینترنت در شبکه های منطقه ای، ملی یا جهانی طراحی شده است، این شبکه از طیف رادیویی بدون نیاز به مجوز را در گروه صنعتی، علمی و پزشکی (ISM) به کار می گیرد.
استانداردها و پارامترهای لایه فیزیکی LoRa و همچنین روشهای ارتباطی گره ها را به به زیرساخت پروتکل LoRaWAN را تعریف می کند.
و قابلیت تبادل اطلاعات امن بین دستگاه ها را فراهم می کند.
کمپانی Semtech تراشه های رادیویی را با تکنولوژی LoRa فراهم می کند،و LoRa Alliance ™، استاندارد سازی و هماهنگ سازی جهانی پروتکل LoRaWAN را در اختیار دارد.




OpenThread released by Nest is an open-source implementation of Thread®. Nest has released OpenThread to make the networking technology used in Nest products more broadly available to developers, in order to accelerate the development of products for the connected home.

With a narrow platform abstraction layer and a small memory footprint, OpenThread is highly portable. It supports both system-on-chip (SoC) and network co-processor (NCP) designs.


OpenThread implements all Thread networking layers (IPv6, 6LoWPAN, IEEE 802.15.4 with MAC security, Mesh Link Establishment, Mesh Routing) and device roles, as well as Border Router support.

  • IPv6 configuration and raw data interface
  • UDP sockets
  • CoAP client and server
  • DHCPv6 client and server
  • DNSv6 client
  • Child Supervision
  • Inform Previous Parent on Reattach
  • Jam Detection
  • Periodic Parent Search
  • Spinel, a general purpose NCP protocol
  • wpantund, a user-space NCP network interface driver/daemon
  • Sniffer support via NCP Spinel nodes
  • Web UI for configuration and management
  • Thread Border Agent to support an External Commissioner
  • NAT64 for connecting to IPv4 networks
  • Thread interface driver using wpantund